The following is a portion of a scene from one of my studio's in-house promotions for our Go Go Gorillas Fun Center. It shows two characters (Hank the Spider Monkey and Libya, one of our Avenging Apes of Africa) keeping time to a musical beat.
I prefer animating my scenes using the rate of 24 frames per second. I know that there are many higher rates of speed that give crisper images, etc. That's fine for live action. But for animation, 24 fps gives me the best option for timing. Also, I don't have to create more drawings to be projected.
(The following is a little complicated. Ask me questions if I confuse you.)
In regards to timing: 24 fps allows me to work with 12 beats per second (2 frames per beat), 8 beats per second (3 frames per beat), 6 beats per second (4 frames per beat), 4 beats per second (6 frames per beat), 3 beats per second (8 frames per beat), 2 beats per second (12 frames per beat), 1 beat per second (24 frames per beat). These all work perfectly with a metronome.
All of the commonly used beats (4, 3, 2, & 1 per second) can be exposed 2 frames per drawing.
However, if 30 fps is used, then you have to create as many as 6 more drawings per second of film. And the beats are not as musically based. So, that means animating a dance sequence would be extremely difficult.
30 fps works out to: 15 beats per second (2 frames per beat), 10 beats per second (3 frames per beat), 6 beats per second (5 frames per beat), 5 beats per second (6 frames per beat), 3 beats per second (10 frames per beat), 2 beats per second (15 frames per beat), 1 beat per second (30 frames per beat).
Note there is no way to have an even 4 beats per second rate using 30 fps. 4 beats a second is the most common way to do a fast run cycle that conveys weight to a character. It's not the only way, but it is the usual way.
Also note that:
1) the commonly used beats of the 30 fps rate (6, 5, 3, & 2 per second) can not be animated solely with 2 frame exposures per drawing;
2) an up and down beat would necessitate an odd number of exposures going in one direction or the other.
This is hard to visualize, so I suggest using a simple bouncing ball animation to experiment and see for yourself. Again, I welcome your questions.